UMASS STRENGTH & CONDITIONING PHILOSOPHY
Jan. 27, 2005
We will continuously challenge each athlete to bring an attitude of hard work, accountability, and total effort to each workout so the athlete improves physically and mentally.
WEIGHT TRAINING PHILOSOPHY
Our training program consists of three elements.
The focus of training is on Multi- joint training or Olympic movements involving a coordinated athletic acceleration path while learning how to create maximum summation of forces. This type of training requires a higher degree of speed and acceleration with a higher energy output thus enhancing nuero-muscular pathways in recruiting a high number of fast twitch fiber while increasing the concentration of ATP/PC within the muscle.
Olympic lifts also provide triple extension, ankle-knee-hip, in one movement just as in sports. This enhances coordination, balance and kinesthetic awareness. Olympic lifts also provide extreme loading forces without the high forces of landing from high boxes as in plyometrics. Plyometrics are fine when they are kept in short duration's and done intensely.
By using full range multiple joint movements or Olympic movements, the body moves in one movement. This is the way the body is intended to move. This type of training increases flexibility prevents injuries and results in greater power output, as well as provides the most functional core strengthening for sports.
The Minneapolis MAYO Clinic study of 1986 concurred; full squats reinforce the kinetic chain of command. It was found that this was best for A.C.L. rehabilitation. Because of the tremendous shearing action on the patella tendon, leg extensions were found to be more debilitating than anything. Training only this one motion, was found to cause a limp in the future. The kinetic chain link consists of movements that start from the ground, to the legs, through the hips then up through the back, then through the shoulders, leading to full extension of the body.
It is important to have a balanced program that trains the antagonistic muscles as well as the agonist. Another advantage free weight training exercises have, is they mimic the speed of movement in all athletic events, in that it has a force velocity curve that is upward. Constant resistance training is not specific to athletes speed of movement, because there is no acceleration, no power is developed. In most real life applications of force the resistance usually becomes less as the speed of movement accelerates and the joint approaches the end of it's motion.
* Lifting should stimulate fast twitch 1A & 2B fibers.
* STUDIES ON SPEED OF MOVEMENT--Mass x Velocity 800 lb. SQUAT = 805 ft. lbs. per sec. 400 lb. BENCH PRESS = 405 ft. lbs. per sec. 300 lb. POWER CLEAN = 1,900 ft. lbs. per sec.
* A 73' shot-put generates forces equivalent to 10,000 horsepower, which is highest among any ever recorded. In a 1978 study, the average vertical jump, for elite shot putters was 30 inches, versus 28 in. for elite high jumpers. Several throwers recorded vertical jumps in the 34-35 in. range.
* At the University of Massachusetts it is necessary to cycle our weights throughout the year. One must vary intensities and reps as this permits the greatest strength gains and avoids stagnation & overtraining. In order for adaptation to take place programs must incorporate periods of rest, as well as alternate levels of intensity.
The concept of aerobic base training before strength and/or power training is ludicrous at best. Countless strength-training studies have been done on untrained subjects who have tolerated strength training very well without any preparatory aerobic work.
You must be aware that until a few years ago, most exercise physiologists had no clue how to train for strength but knew a lot about aerobic exercise, they prescribed only aerobics. They promoted the need for an aerobic base to disguise their lack of knowledge about how to train to gain strength.
If you take a look at NBA players and the top ten sprinters in the world, you will find they have VO2 max values in the area of 47ml/kg/min. The average sedentary person has a value of about 40 ml/kg/min. On the other hand Olympic caliber rowers and cross country skiers have values of about 72 and 78 ml/kg/min. You may be asking yourself why are the basketball players and sprinters in such poor aerobic shape? To understand you must realize the specific demands of their respective sports. For these athletes to be able to perform to the best of their capabilities in their respective sports, sprinters and basketball players need plenty of power and strength to overcome their inertia while sprinting.
Several studies have shown, as aerobic power increases, there is a concurrent decrease in strength, as expressed at high speeds (power). A study in Japan showed, the more your VO2 max improves, the more you vertical jump power decreases. Aerobic work is also associated with the increase in the hormone cortisol. This is one of the body's' most catabolic hormones. Thus if you are trying to build muscle mass you want to stay away from the catabolic effects of aerobic work.
At the University of Massachusetts we train our athletes through anaerobic training with interval training, speed endurance training, hill training, speed training, as well as with agility and plyometric training.
SPEED ENDURANCE--This system prepares the athlete intense efforts increasing the ability to endure the lack of oxygen. Distances range from 150-500 meters at times up to 90 % of the athletes maximum, repetitions of 4-8, recovery 5-6 min. (complete recovery)
INTERVAL SYSTEM--- Distances run are fixed or variable. Interval training increases anaerobic capacity and also increases aerobic endurance. Distances vary between 100-400 meters range at 75 % effort. Recovery ranges from periods of 45 sec. to 3 min. Beginners will start with a longer recovery rate and gradually increase the repetitions and reduce set times and rest times. Pulse rate should not exceed 180 bpm at the end of an interval and the next interval should not be started until the pulse rate has fallen below 140 bpm or preferably 120 bpm.
HILL TRAINING--The principal aim of hill training is to achieve greater muscular power and reinforce proper running mechanics. Hills are cycled weekly or bi-weekly.
SPEED TRAINING--Full speed-very high rate of stride frequency (speed of muscular contraction). Distances range from 20-60 meters; repetitions are from 10-15 preferably gradually increasing in distances run-- Rest intervals should be from 3-5 mins.